Example course

Lesson no. 2

Climatic Injuries

Climatic injuries involve injuries caused by both heat and cold. Each of these conditions affects the body differently and we need to know how to deal with each of these effects properly.

Take Note

  • The most important thing is prevention. It is easy to avoid getting into a situation where you experience climatic injuries, which we will discuss these later on.
  • Do not perform an action if you do not have the authority to do so, such as administering an infusion.


This condition is caused by a loss of fluid balance in the body; that is, a case where a person has lost a quantity of liquid, for example by sweating, but has not regained these quantities by drinking water. Maintaining a proper water balance in the body is vital for proper functioning of our body, and in extreme cases dehydration can lead to death.

Therefore, in any strenuous activity such as running, hiking or a particularly hot day, it is very important to drink water and thus avoid dehydration. It is important to emphasize that when there is doubt whether the situation is a result of dehydration or a heat stroke, the case should be treated as a heat stroke.

Case Identification

  • A fast heartbeat, the body tries to compensate for the lack of fluid in the blood by increasing the heart rate
  • Low blood pressure, due to the fact that there is less than the amount of fluid required in the circulatory system
  • Nausea
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Throat dryness and thirst. In this way the body signals to us that we are required to drink fluids to rehydrate the body
  • Decreased, yellow urine
  • Case story


  • Prevention, as mentioned above. Drinking water will prevent dehydration
  • Seating the patient in the shade
  • Hydrating the patient with relatively small sips
  • During dehydration, the body has lost much of its salt, so it is recommended to eat salted foods
  • If the condition worsens or the patient is unable to drink, they should be taken to a hospital.

Heat Stroke (Hyperthermia)

Heat stroke is defined as the body temperature rising above 40 degrees Celsius. As in the case of electrocution, in high heat the proteins in the body undergo denaturation, a change in their spatial structure. In our case, the point is that they will stop functioning properly. Because the enzymes in our bodies are made up of proteins, and are the ones responsible for most of the biological processes in our bodies, this condition is life-threatening. A heat stroke is a condition that results in near-term death and requires urgent care.

Case Identification

  • The signs of dehydration
  • Flushed skin
  • Confusion
  • Tremors in the body
  • Inability to stand
  • Difficulty speaking
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Hallucinations
  • Seizures


  • Prevention, drinking a lot of water and rest
  • Moving the patient to a shaded area
  • Undressing the patient
  • Pouring large amounts of water on the patient’s body from the chest down
  • Immediate evacuation to a hospital.


Hypothermia is defined as a decrease in body temperature below about 35 degrees. This condition is most often caused while out in the cold for a long time or being in cold conditions after excessive sweating. When the body temperature drops below 32 degrees, the symptoms change and get worse. Cold conditions affect blood flow in the body. Under these conditions, peripheral blood vessels undergo vasoconstriction (contraction) and blood does not reach the periphery sufficiently (fingers, limbs). Therefore, after being out in cold conditions for too long, necrosis develops in these organs. It is important to emphasize that when you encounter a person who has been in cold conditions for a long time, you may be confused because you will not see him shaking and he may even behave as if everything is well.

Case Identification

  • Cold
  • Tingling in the limbs
  • Tremors
  • In advanced hypothermia the patient will be apathetic and indifferent and their tremors will even stop
  • Unconsciousness


  • Bringing the patient to a warm place
  • Changing their clothes, if wet
  • Heating them with heating bags, by indirect contact
  • Covering with blankets
  • Evacuation to the hospital if the patient shows no signs of recovery.

Do Not

  • Do not give alcohol. Alcohol only increases blood flow for a short time and then expands the blood vessels, thus cooling the body even more
  • Do not attempt to treat frozen limbs, leave this treatment for the hospital
  • Hot water should not be used to thaw the patient.

Heat-Induced Seizures

Heat-induced seizures are a relatively common phenomenon in children (defined from six months to 5 years) whose body temperature rises above roughly 38 degrees as a result of a virus or illness. Heat-induced seizures usually last about five minutes and in exceptional cases can take up to fifteen minutes.

Case Identification

  • Loss of consciousness
  • Losing of sphincter control
  • Seizure


  • Urgent evacuation
  • Lying on a safe surface where the patient cannot fall or bump into something
  • Try to lay the child on their side to avoid suffocation
  • If necessary, we will move on and begin CPR

Do Not

  • Do not put the child in the shower or bath
  • Do not try to open the child’s mouth or take out their tongue.

did you know

  • Sweating is one of the body’s mechanisms for cooling down. When you increase body temperature, for example during exercise, the body begins to sweat (the sweat is mainly composed of water and salts), and as the sweat evaporates the body cools down.
  • On an average day a person loses about half a liter of water through breath alone.
  • In exercise, we sweat up to three liters.