This topic will deal with animal-induced injuries. Apart from the initial response of the body to these injuries, some also have long-term effects. There are various species of venomous animals in the country, so we will list the most common ones, the specific treatment methods that are appropriate for each case, and the various diseases animals can transmit when in contact with humans.
An important concept in this lesson is the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is a system of vessels that pass through our bodies, much like the vascular system. This system also includes lymph nodes that are mainly concentrated in the groin, armpits, neck and more. These lymph nodes are basically storage areas for cells called lymphocytes.
One of the important functions of this system is to fight infections and bacteria that enter the bloodstream. When a foreign agent passes through one of the lymph nodes and is identified by the lymphocytes, they multiply and fight against the same foreign agent.
It is important to remember the highlighted points in case identification may not appear at all or only partially appear.
- Black Viper (Ein Gedi Viper): The deadliest of the venomous snakes in Israel. The snake is black and smooth, up to roughly eight inches long with a small, conical head. The black viper is active at night and is common in moist areas such as the Jordan Valley and the Dead Sea, as well as in the Negev and the Arava.
- Common Viper (Israeli Land Viper): The most common and largest venomous snake in Israel. Common from Be’er Sheva northward, even in inhabited places with thick foliage where the snake is usually hidden. The color of its body varies according to the area in which it lives, from light brown on the coastal plain to dark brown in the Golan Heights. A curved brown stripe can be found on its back, with a relatively thick body. In Israel, about a hundred people are bitten every year by the Israeli viper.
- Painted Carpet Viper: The color of the snake varies according to the color of the ground where it develops, ranging from brown to red. On its back are spots lighter than its general color. When the snake senses danger, it makes warning sounds that it produces by rubbing its scales. The snake is a good climber and is usually found near sources of water. It can be found in a diverse range of places geographically, including the Eilat Mountains, the southern and western Negev region, the Dead Sea region and the Judean Desert, the Jordan Valley and the Gilboa mountain range.
The venom, which the snake produces in special glands in its head, is actually saliva that has undergone many changes. The venom of the snake is transmitted in a small extent to the vascular system, but most of it spreads in the lymphatic system. The various types of venom are aimed at damaging one or several of the following systems in the body:
- Nervous system: Causes paralysis or lack of control over muscles
- Circulatory system: This venom causes lowering of blood pressure and increased clotting, slowing its flow. In addition, some types of venom attack the heart to impair its function
- Muscles: Some types of venom contain digestive enzymes, these enzymes break down the tissues they come in contact with, causing the venom to spread faster.
There are about eighteen species of scorpions in our country, including three species fatal to humans. The scorpion usually hides under stones, in cracks and burrows. A scorpion sting affects the respiratory system and is especially dangerous to children due to their relatively low body weight.
Over six hundred different species of spiders exist in Israel and two of them pose a danger to humans. However, for the last fifty years, no death has been documented as a direct result of a spider bite. Sometimes, when defending itself, the spider bites as a warning and does not inject venom at all. In the case of a bite, most often, the chelicerae (the spider’s fangs/jaws) are unable to penetrate our skin at all, but if successful, a bite without venom insertion will still cause pain only because of the destruction caused by the tissue. Today, there is no sure way to know if a person has been bitten by a spider, unless it is seen firsthand, because the symptoms of spider bites are varied and similar to other diseases that are not related at all. Naturally, yet contrary to popular belief, spiders prefer to avoid confrontation with humans and bite when they feel they have no other option.
As explained, there is currently no way to detect injury as a result of a spider bite, aside from details of the incident.
Bees, wasps, and hornets are not defined as venomous animals. Their sting is a danger only to those with specific sensitivity or after multiple stings. In this case, breathing difficulties can occur, and in extreme cases even death.
In one or more of the above-mentioned symptoms, or if the person has a known allergy to bees, the Epinephrine syringe may be used if available, or the person should be taken to the hospital
Rabies is considered to be one of the most dangerous diseases in the world, both because of its relative ease of infection and also because its chances of recovery are near-zero. The disease is transmitted mainly through saliva, usually by an animal bite, but can also be transferred by licking. The disease is found in warm-blooded animals such as jackals, rats and bats.
The incubation period of the disease, that is, the time from actual infection of the rabies virus to the onset of symptoms, can vary from a few days to about a year, because the virus progresses in the human body about an inch a day and the symptoms begin when the virus reaches the host’s brain.
Based on details of the occurrence.